2017 AIPG National Annual Conference
Music City Rocks - Geology in the Past, Present, and Future

Presenters with Abstracts an Posters with Abstracts

David M. Abbott, Jr., CPG, Consulting Geologist, Denver, CO

The need for disclosure to potential investors in mining ventures was addressed in De Re Metallica in 1556. H.C. Hoover defined “proved ore” and “probable ore” in 1909. The SEC adopted Hoover’s definitions in its early decisions on mining disclosure and forms for use by mining companies. In 1981 the SEC amended its mining disclosure guidance for Form S-18. The text of the 1981 disclosure guidance was copied into Industry Guide 7, when it was adopted in 1992. The international mining industry began formulating definitions for “mineral resources” and disclosure guides in the late 1980s. In 1991, the first of SME’s A Guide for Reporting Exploration Information, Resources and Reserves (SME Guide) was published in Mining Engineering. Subsequently, the SME Guide and other internationally recognized guides were expanded and revised over the years. In 2003, the Combined Reserve International Reporting Standards Committee (CRIRSCO) was formed to adopt internationally agreed upon and accepted definitions for categories of mineral resources and mineral reserves. In 2006, the first CRIRSCO reporting template was issued. For some time, the mining industry in the US, led by the SME and NMA, has been urging the SEC to update Industry Guide 7 and in June 2016 the SEC issued its “Modernization of Property Disclosures for Mining Registrants.” Unfortunately, while the stated purpose was to align the SEC’s mining disclosure guidance with international standards, the proposed rules were written by attorneys with no knowledge of the mining industry. More than 73 comments on the SEC’s proposal were submitted by the mining industry organizations and companies including AIPG. All urged radical revisions in the proposed rules. The current status of the SEC’s proposed revisions to Industry Guide 7 will be described.

David M. Abbott, Jr., CPG, Consulting Geologist, Denver, CO
Although the AIPG Ethics Code has always encouraged continuing professional development (CPD) and various CPD programs have been adopted over the years, none have been successful. The CPD programs adopted by AIPG and other professional organizations have suffered from complexity. The current trend of CPD programs is towards simplicity. Contact hours are now the basic logging unit with no discounts. AIPG’s new program divides CPD into seven activity areas. However, these assigning a particular CPD activity to one of these areas remains somewhat arbitrary. Logging time in several of the CPD activity areas is one of the hallmarks of a successful CPD program. The key to successful CPD compliance is logging CPD activities as they occur. OneNote™ or Evernote™ provide an excellent means of tracking CPD activities as they occur. The data recorded in these programs is readily copied into AIPG’s CPD reporting workbook, which can be used to prepare CPD reports for any CPD system. The new Nationally Licensed Geologist title holders must report at least 16 hours of CPD including 1 hour devoted to professional ethics each year. Those CPGs wishing to maintain their QP/CP status for mining reports should also consider participating in AIPG’s CPD program. There will be periodic audits of those participating in the CPD program to ensure compliance verification. Further information on AIPG’s CPD program will be posted on AIPG’s website.

Jonathan Arthur, MEM, Florida Geological Survey, Tallahassee, FL

The Florida Department of Environmental Protection - Florida Geological Survey contracted with Dewberry to conduct a Florida LiDAR assessment, modeled after the US Geological Survey (USGS) 2012 National Enhanced Elevation Assessment.  The Florida assessment, however, considers both terrestrial and topobathymetric LiDAR.  Over more than a decade, Florida has invested millions of dollars in LiDAR data collection across disconnected geographic areas, at different times, and at varying resolutions; yet less than 30% of the state has coverage that meets the US Geological Survey’s 3D Elevation Program recommended quality level.  The assessment recognizes that LiDAR data acquisition technologies continue to advance, and underscores Florida’s needs for repeated LiDAR data given the state’s low topographic relief, extensive, dynamic and vulnerable coastal zone, and flooding potential.  Cost-efficiencies related to LiDAR data collection can likely be improved. 
The assessment was designed to update LiDAR business uses and mission critical activities in Florida that require LiDAR data; review emerging LiDAR technologies; develop implementation scenarios that address technical challenges, risks, benefits, costs including consistent quality assurance/quality control and post-processing of collected data; calculate a return on investment analysis for the state of Florida for each scenario; identify need and frequency of coverage; identify public-private partnerships for future funding, and identify funding models and strategies for increased awareness.  Results of the study are expected to outline potential improvements in Florida’s ability to take full advantage of economy of scale, which could be realized through coordinated efforts.  For example, statewide LiDAR coverage could provide more accurate flood risk analysis for an additional 1.5 million residents and improved sinkhole hazard mitigation.  Periodic data collection would support change detection such as sinkhole activity, coastline evolution, and improved emergency response. 
The assessment will be based on feedback from a broad cross section of managers and data users through a questionnaire designed by Dewberry and distributed through SurveyMonkey®.  Out of more than 150 points of contact (e.g., business users and stakeholders) at all levels of government and in the private sector, more than 40% responded to the questionnaire, which included links to an extensive 55-page Frequently Asked Questions document.  Dewberry will consolidate feedback to determine spatial, temporal, and resolution needs as well as frequency of data collection across Florida.  The final report will include the components to inform the design of future programs that balance requirements, benefits, and maximize investments.

Laurel Blackman, United States Army Corps of Engineers, Nashville, TN

The Army Corps of Engineers began providing the Government of Iraq with engineering support for Mosul Dam in 2006 and continues to do so during current grouting operations. Mosul Dam is located 50 km upstream of Mosul city, and 350 km upstream of Baghdad, with millions of people living within the potential inundation area. The dam itself is a modern dam - conservatively designed by Swiss engineers and well-built, it began operating in 1986 as a much-needed flood control and water resource project. The geologic foundation consists of a cyclic sedimentary series of limestone, anhydrite, gypsum and marl (calcareous clay and claystone), with several low friction angle clay seams at medium to shallow depths, and well-to-poorly cemented conglomerates and unconsolidated alluvium throughout the site. The soluble and soft rocks of the foundation were known to be problematic during design, and as a result the Swiss Contractors prescribed lifetime grouting to continually replace the dissolving gypsum. The bedding structure of the rock in the shallow foundation was disrupted in many places due to the volumetric expansion anhydrite experiences during its hydration to gypsum, resulting in the eventual formation of chimney structures, sinkholes, and eventually entire beds of marly breccia. The present-day engineers are just as concerned with dam performance as the original designers were due to the ever-changing karst foundation. The Nashville District Geology Section used ARCGIS to construct a living geologic model incorporating geologic and grouting data, civil structure as-builts, instrumentation, and all other available project data. This model has been used extensively in risk assessment, instrumentation installation planning, grouting depth determinations, settlement analysis, grouting analysis, and construction support.

Oliver Bonham, Geoscientists Canada, Burnaby, BC, Canada
Legal settings and procedural structures for the self-regulation of geoscience practice differ around the world; nevertheless all systems are rooted in the concept of assuring the public that those who violate codes of professional ethical conduct will be appropriately sanctioned.
This talk, which is based on a jointly-authored paper presented previously at the 35th International Geological Congress in Cape Town, South Africa, in August 2016, will summarize disciplinary procedures in use in professional geoscience around the world, using the member organizations of the International Union of Geological Science’s Task Group on Global Geoscience Professionalism as a basis.  The paper will also examine disciplinary actions against violators in recent years which have come to the attention of the authors.
Recommendation will be made concerning greater transparency and the sharing of information on disciplinary actions between geoscience professional organizations (of all type). A global repository of geoscience disciplinary actions should be established and kept as up to date as possible.
Bill Brab, CPG, AST Environmental, Midway, KY

Analysis of a Conceptual Site Model (CSM) assists in identifying data gaps that hinder the development of comprehensive and cost effective remedial strategies.  Karst terrain has proven especially challenging when estimating the distribution horizontally and vertically in the subsurface of hydrocarbon mass within differing regimes.  Karstification of the underlying limestone bedrock results in vertical conduit development through the widening of joints, faults, and bedding planes through dissolution.  Residual hydrocarbon is typically adsorbed onto fine-grained sediments at the soil/bedrock interface which may migrate downward becoming sediment-filled voids in the epikarst and more competent bedrock horizons.  The adsorbed hydrocarbons provide a long-term source for dissolved phase groundwater plumes.  Remediation methods are limited in karst settings due to physical constraints including controlling matrix diffusion, above and underground infrastructure, and distribution within the impacted zone(s).

Since hydrocarbon distribution is typically concentrated and isolated to relatively thin zones within the overall treatment area, once data gaps are identified multiple techniques must be used to increase the resolution of the data to refine the existing CSM. Passive methods such as publication review and surface geophysics are combined with active methods including continuous, high-density soil sampling of the overburden (regolith) and characterization of surface-cased open boreholes in epikarst and bedrock (down-hole wireline geophysics, discrete groundwater sampling, pumping tests, and drawdown response with transducers in surrounding monitoring points) are used to refine the CSM and develop an effective remedial strategy.  Quantification of total mass balance and spatial location of the hydrocarbon permits surgical precision during implementation of the selected remedial technology.

In-situ methods are proving to be the most cost-effective method of remediation: low permeability overburden is addressed with high density, high pressure, and high flow injection; straddle-packers and high pressure, high flow injection in karst allow for surgical application of amendments into identified features during characterization.

Bill Brab, CPG, AST Environmental, Midway, KY

Failure of a 16” stopple fitting at a petroleum pipeline transmission meter station in Michigan resulted in the release of approximately 1,700-barrels of gasoline fuel in June 2000. Approximately 1,400-barrels of fuel were recovered using vacuum trucks, booms, and underlain dams. Approximately 30,000-tons of impacted soil was removed to approximately 4-feet where accessible. Free-product recovery via groundwater extraction capable of up to 25,000-gallons per month and long-term groundwater monitoring was conducted at the facility following the release, the groundwater extraction system was shut down in approximately 2012. Due to access issues and compatibility concerns with multiple buried pipelines through the area of remediation, an innovative technology was required that could be implemented within the constraints present at this facility. The technology had to remove LNAPL and provide significant reductions in total sorbed and dissolved-phase mass, control further plume migration beyond the area of treatment, and be implemented without compromising the integrity of the buried petroleum transmission lines. Additional characterization was conducted in September 2013 to further quantify and define the vertical and horizontal extent of total mass at the facility, it was determined that two (2) injection events would be required to accomplish the site clean-up goals. Initial injection (1st Event) using Trap & Treat® BOS 200® was performed in April 2014. One year following the completion of the first injection event, resampling of soil and groundwater was performed to determine mass removal and a current baseline for the second injection event. Total mass removal estimates across the treatment area averaged ~85% for benzene and ~65% for TVPH for sorbed-phase and ~72% for benzene and ~89% for TVPH for dissolved phase. The second injection event was completed in April 2016, performance groundwater monitoring has continued quarterly since completion. Results as of the November 2016 groundwater monitoring event indicate average benzene removal at ~82% and TVPH at ~92% when compared to pre-injection analytical data. The occurrence of LNAPL is sporadic and isolated to an occasional sheen in 2 monitoring wells within the source area of treatment.

Bill Brab, CPG, AST Environmental, Midway, KY

Groundwater impacts from Tetrachloroethylene (PCE) and its breakdown products at a former dry cleaner in northern Tennessee ranged from up to 22,000 µg/L PCE in the source area to 200 µg/L PCE near the downgradient property line.  The Site was a Comet Cleaners which conducted on-site dry cleaning from 1989 to 1996 and is located at the Portland Village Shopping Center in Portland, Tennessee about 30 miles north of Nashville.  A Limited Site Investigation was performed in 2004, Chlorinated VOCs were detected in a shallow temporary well by the back door of former cleaner.  Previous attempts at chemical oxidation by injection of sodium permanganate at four injection wells in the source area had not proven to be effective.  It was apparent that delivery of sodium permanganate solution had been hampered by short-circuiting of the solution through preferential pathways, inadequate horizontal and vertical spacing of the injection points, incorrect methodology for injection fine-grained sediments, longevity of the reagent in the environment, and insufficient quantity of oxidant to overcome the natural soil oxidant demand.  The Site needed an in-situ remediation approach that was better suited for delivery in low permeability soils and could deliver sufficient quantities of amendment to meet the long term contaminant demand.  Remediation was implemented in two phases: a pilot test in the source area, followed by treatment of the groundwater plume area.

High Energy low volume pulses of a water based suspension of a unique treatment material (BOS 100®) was selected as the field scale remedial approach for the site.  BOS 100® is a specialized catalyst manufactured by Remediation Products, Inc. and is designed for rapid degradation of chlorinated solvents.  The product consists of activated carbon that has been impregnated with elemental iron.  The manufacturing process results in a large metallic iron surface area that is highly reactive.  Since the product is granular, its in-situ installation in fine-grained low permeability formations results in seams of material that form preferential pathways throughout the formation. This enhances contact and provides a long-term mechanism for “effective contact” and this mechanism remains active for an indefinite period of time.  This approach was developed to allow extremely accurate, surgical placement of injectate within impacted soil and groundwater incrementally over a relatively thick zone.

It has been demonstrated on multiple fine-grained low permeability sediments sites that high density (tightly spaced injection points and vertical intervals), high flow, and high pressure injections achieve optimal distribution for solid suspension injections.  This approach achieves the greatest distribution in the subsurface while providing long term chemical reduction with no daughter product generation.  Immediately following treatment, concentrations PCE and its breakdown products in the source area and plume area wells had decreased to non-detectable levels.  Twenty-one months after treatment, the concentrations of PCE and its breakdown products have been reduced by 99% over pre-remediation concentration in the source area, and by 97% in the plume area.  Supporting data to be provided at the time of presentation will include analytical data summary tables, trend analysis graphs, site figures, and contaminant mass calculation comparison.

Andy Carroll, Skytec LLC, Chattanooga, TN

Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) sensors are commonly used in geospatial data acquisition for natural resource and environmental management. LiDAR sensors are fully capable of vegetation and ground cover penetration for accurate terrain surface measurement, as compared to more common, less obstruction tolerant, photogrammetric methods. Recent advances for inertial measurement unit devices, global navigation satellite system receivers, and regulatory authorizations have increased the deployment of unmanned aerial systems (UASs) for geospatial data acquisition. Comparably, commercially manufactured LiDAR sensor payloads are available in smaller form factors and weights. Results from recent field mapping missions and LiDAR sensor evaluations, indicate increased mobility, reduction of safety hazards, and high data quality results from LiDAR enabled UAS platforms. In addition, UAS systems offer potential time and cost savings, verses traditional survey or manned aircraft acquisitions.

Aaron Collier, Collier Consulting, Stephenville, TX

This talk will discuss the components necessary for custom water management software that utilizes modern web and cloud technology, as well as spatial enterprise Relational Database Management Systems (RDBMS) and the latest NoSQL databases in the Cloud. Water managers need their information capture and display methods modernized to keep pace with today’s technology. If your workflow involves paper forms, it is time to modernize. However, don’t simply settle for where the industry was a decade ago (e.g. antiquated technologies such as Access and Silverlight).
Utilizing modern technology will realize the following advances:
  1. The database is no longer fragmented into multiple pieces of outdated software and data repositories.
  2. A Cloud-based enterprise RDBMS eliminates costly infrastructure and time spent doing backups, upgrades, and maintenance of hardware and software.
  3. Data are readily available and backed up across multiple data centers, so local disaster recovery is instantly achieved.
  4. With web mapping tied to dashboard and reporting systems, all information is connected.
  5. Having paper forms integrated as web forms means that all data is collected directly in the Cloud database, resulting in cleaner data and real-time utilization.
  6. The latest web technology is used to give the most performant and standards based approach.
  7. The system can be scaled and load balanced to achieve a consistent experience given a small or large number of concurrent users.
  8. Content can be accessible across mobile/tablet/PC platforms.
  9. The open architecture of the software is maintainable for years to come.

Hughbert Collier, CPG, Collier Consulting, Stephenville, TX

Constructing a water well that maximizes its production rate, efficiency, and lifespan requires integrating hydrogeology, well design, and drilling techniques. Unfortunately, this is not always the case.  When engineering a well, it is critical that both the initial and final design be based on site specific geology.  The initial well design should be based on a hydrogeologic study, with pilot or test hole data (e.g. geologic description of drill cuttings, sieve analyses, borehole geophysical logs, water analyses) used to finalize the well design.

Well specifications are a second critical component for successful well construction.  They serve three functions: protect the client, assist the drilling contractor, and ensure a quality well.  This talk will discuss items that should be included in well specs (e.g. drilling fluid properties, testing procedures, guarantees), along with case histories of what happens when they are deficient.

Daily, onsite monitoring throughout drilling and well construction is a third critical component. It serves the same three functions: protect the client, assist the drilling contractor, and ensure a quality well.  A high capacity water well is a significant financial investment warranting professional, third party monitoring.  Partnering with the drilling contractor minimizes problems and helps insure the success of the project.  Case studies vouch for the wisdom of this approach.

An orchestration of hydrogeology, engineering design, and construction oversight is imperative to deliver to the client a well project that ensures quality construction and maximizes production and infrastructure lifespan. 

Mark Elson, US Army Corps of Engineers, Nashville, TN

Kentucky Lock and Dam owned by Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) and operated by US Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) currently has a new lock addition under construction in Gilbertsville, KY.  The new 110’x1200’ lock chamber is under construction by USACE Nashville District and is located landward of the existing 110’x600’ lock.  The new lock is founded in Ft Payne Limestone that has karst features with a founding elevation below the existing lock’s foundation.  The project is being built in phases and the upstream monoliths (15% of total monoliths), miter gates, and right embankment are completed.  Due to lessons learned on the failure of the TVA Wheeler main lock during construction of adjacent lock in 1961, additional design and construction techniques were utilized for Kentucky Lock.  These techniques included phased post-tensioning of lock walls, an extensive automated and manual instrumentation monitoring program and phased overburden and rock excavation.  The phased excavation included strict perimeter control and controlled blasting techniques, such as precision presplitting and “checkerboard” excavation adjacent to the operating lock.

The material being excavated consists of Mississippian age limestones of the Warsaw and Ft Payne Formations which consist of generally thick to massive horizontal beds with large silica content and karst solution features.  The karst features were generally oriented vertically along joints and along some horizontal bedding planes which required adjustments in blasting and dental excavation and concrete.  The checkerboard excavation concept incorporated phased excavation so that pre-designed stabilizing masses of rock blocks of Ft. Payne Limestone were left adjacent to the existing lock wall during the initial construction phase. The blocks provided additional protection against sliding of the adjacent existing lock monoliths.  The checkerboard blocks were later excavated by means of mechanical excavation techniques and expansive grout in order to protect the recently placed, adjacent concrete.  Excavation work and focused precision presplitting, line drilling and controlled blasting operations occurred while river traffic passed through the existing lock, often adjacent to the blasting area. These measures required significant investments in instrumentation and monitoring of the construction site to ensure worker safety and structure stability.

Carole Estes, Southwest Florida Water Management District, Sarasota, FL

The FARMS program is a win / win for the agricultural community and water resources in Florida’s Southwest Florida Water Management District.  Water management in Florida is handled by five multi county water management districts.  Each District has its own challenges and priorities.  SWFWMD has jurisdiction over the central west coast and mid-section of Florida.  The main concern in this District is reasonable and beneficial use of Upper Floridan groundwater.  This District encompasses the Tampa Metropolitan Area, some of the Orlando Metropolitan area, the phosphate mining region of central Florida, and a large portion of the state’s citrus, tomato industries, and other agriculture dependent on groundwater irrigation.  SWFWMD has long funded projects with local governments to reduce water used for public supply.  Prior to the FARMS Program, agricultural water use was not being addressed.  In 2004, SWFWMD began a public / private partnership program to encourage irrigation best management practices to reduce groundwater use in agricultural.  Facilitating Agricultural Resource Management Systems (FARMS) is that program.  FARMS Projects are proposed by the farmer to ensure that whatever is funded will work for and be used by the farmer.  Projects are evaluated to determine whether the proposal is cost effective, and beneficial for both the groundwater resource and the grower.  Since inception, the FARMS Program has funded 180 projects to reduce more than 20 million gallons per day of agricultural groundwater use.  FARMS projects come in several varieties including use of an alternative water supply, general conservation, irrigation conversion, projects to reduce groundwater use for cold protection, and recently projects that reduce nutrient application in our springs area.  SWFWMD has found that providing minimal funding to encourage best management irrigation practices is very cost effective compared to larger scale public supply projects.  It’s a win / win for the agricultural community and the water resources.

Duane Guilfoil, AST Environmental, Midway, KY

The site is located within the Kentucky Inner Bluegrass physiographic region. Bedrock is 10 to 20 feet below ground surface and overburden is mainly clay to a silty clay residuum.  PCE is found in overburden and epi-karst where concentrations initially ranged from 0.4 mg/L to 87 mg/L in the groundwater, and soil ranged from <1 mg/kg to 500 mg/kg. A down-hole camera and borehole geophysics (temperature, electrical conductivity, caliper, and optical borehole imaging) was used to determine the specific fracture intervals to target for hydraulic tests.  Targeted intervals were isolated using a straddle packer equipped with pressure transducers within the sample zone, and below and above the sample zone to confirm the discreteness of the sample.  The final designs for the injections, targeting individual fractures, was based on the iron demand required to dechlorinate PCE within the fracture volume.  Using the packer system to isolate individual fracture zones, the injections were customized, reducing the chances of under dosing or over dosing an interval.  Material was injected discreetly into fractures under pressure forcing it into the bedrock fractures instead of remaining in a minimal zone of influence.  Monitoring indicates the injection was successful in reaching and treating the bedrock groundwater. 

Tom Harp, CPG, LT Environmental, Inc., Arvada, CO

Background/Objectives. Burgeoning technologies such as Membrane Interface Probes can be effective qualitative screening tools, but are ineffective for accurate design or performance monitoring, especially at sites where dense-non-aqueous-phase-liquid (DNAPL) is present. High-resolution, quantitative data are needed to accurately characterize and map solute distribution in soil and groundwater. Data gathering does not stop at the design or implementation phases in that it is also needed following a treatment episode to evaluate performance, i.e., “how did we do?” and/or “do we need to do it again?” In other words, successful remediation programs need to be flexible and supported by robust performance monitoring that allows using “where you have been” to adjust for “where you need to go”.

A high-resolution, quantitative-data approach was implemented at a large, urban industrial facility where trichloroethene (TCE) was used extensively as a cleaning solvent. The site was underlain by river deposits and sedimentary bedrock. The selected remedy was in-situ treatment using BOS 100®, an immiscible, activated carbon solid injectate. Impacted alluvium consisted of well-graded, fine- to coarse-grained sand. The source area was underlain by an aquitard of clayey silt where DNAPL pooled at the interface. Impacts did not extend into the underlying claystone bedrock. Solute transport was dictated by physical properties of the DNAPL, (e.g., density) and by aquifer characteristics such as heterogeneity, anisotropy, variance in matrix density, grain size in the alluvial sands, and gradient.  Subtle facies changes resulted in solute concentrations that varied by orders-of-magnitude in distances of only several millimeters. This inherent complexity was the impetus for using quantitative, high-resolution data to demonstrate remedy performance.
Approach/Activities. Once an accurate conceptual site model was constructed and treatment was underway, the high-resolution program was tailored to demonstrate mass reduction as a result of BOS 100® performance. In total, 1,291 continuous soil samples were analyzed from 186 borings and 5,515 groundwater samples were analyzed from 1,349 monitoring wells.
The greatest value of the high-resolution, performance-monitoring approach was in areas where DNAPL or high concentration soil or dissolved-phase impacts were observed.  The sequence was to: 1) use (continuous) soil and groundwater data to design a discrete and accurate remedial design; 2) inject BOS 100®; 3) complete confirmatory/performance borings to observe remedy distribution and to evaluate if “the target was hit” (or to make adjustments to subsequent injections, accordingly); 4) analyze corresponding groundwater samples; and 5) calculate mass reduction.  The sequence was repeated until cleanup goals were met in a subject area.
Results/Lessons Learned. The project was a success because of the effectiveness of the BOS 100® and the quantity and quality of data gathered to demonstrate treatment performance. The DNAPL portion of the plume was reduced from percent-level concentrations (up to 254,770,000 micrograms per kilogram TCE in soil and 1,280,000 micrograms per liter TCE in groundwater) to closure levels. The dissolved-phase plume was also mitigated and site-closure monitoring began in 2014.  A No Action Determination for the site was granted in 2016.

David Heidlauf, CPG, Ramboll Environ, Chicago, IL

A 50-year old complex site has gone through five progressive refinements to its Site Conceptual Model (SCM), which have directly impacted three generations of site remedial actions.  The project site is located in the Mississippi Embayment where 200,000 drums of pesticide manufacturing waste were disposed in shallow trenches from 1964 to 1973 creating one of the country’s worst carbon tetrachloride groundwater contaminant plumes. Insufficient data and data interpretation mistakes yielded incomplete and inaccurate SCMs, which resulted in incomplete and failed early generation remedies.
The initial SCM was developed in 1964 on the basis of a single deep site water supply well and consisted of five hydrostratigraphic units: a Sandy Vadose Zone, a Sandy Water Table Aquifer, an Intermediate Clay Aquitard, a Sandy Confined Aquifer, and a Basal Clay Aquitard.  The initial SCM had no groundwater flow direction component.
USGS conducted a limited site hydrogeological investigation in 1967 that focused on the water table aquifer.  The 2nd generation SCM consisted of a water table aquifer with an easterly groundwater flow direction towards an adjacent (lateral) stream.

In response to mid-1970’s complaints from residents north of the site that their well water was bad, the USGS and a responsible party (RP) consultant conducted comprehensive water table aquifer investigations.  Both investigations documented the extent of the carbon tetrachloride plume and identified a northerly groundwater flow direction towards a larger receiving stream.  In response to this updated 3rd generation SCM, 1st generation remedial response measures were employed consisting of a 2-foot clay cap and provision of municipal water service.

The site was placed on the NPL in 1982 and a Remedial Investigation (RI) was initiated in 1987.  The first RI boring was drilled with hollow-stem augers to a depth of 120 feet. Drilling then switched to mud rotary before the base of the Water Table Aquifer was reached.  The RP contractor unknowingly drilled through the Intermediate Clay Aquitard and continued until reaching the Basal Clay Aquitard.  Based on this mis-logged borehole, the SCM was revised to a Sandy Vadose Zone, a Sandy Water Table Aquifer with thick clay stringers, and a Basal Clay Aquitard.  In response to the updated 4th generation SCM, 2nd generation remedial measures were employed consisting of a RCRA cap upgrade and a groundwater pump and treat system with extraction wells screened in the “upper” and “lower” sand zones.

The site transitioned to a bankruptcy trust in 2002, and the trust’s contractor subsequently conducted additional investigations including groundwater extraction system performance assessment, sonic drilling for stratigraphic characterization, geophysical logging of existing extraction wells, and a multi-aquifer pump test. The SCM was recalibrated to include a Sandy Vadose Zone, a Sandy Water Table Aquifer, an Intermediate Clay Aquitard, a Sandy Leaky Confined Aquifer, and a Basal Clay Aquitard. In response to the updated 5th generation SCM, 3rd generation remedial measures are being employed that consist of landfill cap extensions with drainage improvements, soil vapor extraction of the buried drum landfills, and deferment of groundwater actions until Source Control Measures are firmly underway.

Christopher M. Hogan, Senior Mine Geologist, The Doe Run Company, Viburnum, MO

This presentation will compare and contrast Tennessee MVT deposits spatially within the state as well as including some comparison to other mid-continent MVT deposits such as the Viburnum Trend Pb-Zn-Cu deposit in SE Missouri.  These systems emplaced ore over a significant time span, and all exhibit multiple episodes of mineral deposition, brecciation, and dolomitization during ore genesis.
The Lower to Middle Ordovician economic sphalerite deposits of Tennessee exhibit many distinct traits, and are often separated into Eastern versus Central Tennessee deposits.  Still, Central Tennessee’s Elmwood-Gordonsville district, which flanks the Cincinnati Arch, is remarkably similar to East Tennessee’s Mascot-Jefferson City district with the latter being strongly influenced by its spatial proximity to the Appalachian Orogeny.
Paleoenvironmental conditions were quite similar between the districts, with both deposits emplaced below the same unconformity, and in a similar shallow, rather low energy marine environment. Widespread dolomitization is characteristic of both deposits, as is a very similar, low Fe content sphalerite. Some gangue minerals in the Tennessee sphalerite deposits are distinctive. Distinct gangue minerals include chert nodules and secondary gangue dolomites, barite and fluorite (which is much more common in Central Tennessee). Secondary porosity played an important role in emplacement of these ores; solution collapse breccias and dissolution provided cavities and a means of concentration of metal sulfides from connate brines. The paleokarsted, clean Knox group limestones present an ideal host and had acceptable fluid conductivity to allow movement and concentration of metal brines. Ore emplacement included multiple pulses of dolomitizing fluids that overprint one another, some to the point of additional brecciation and emplacement of younger ores. Transport mechanisms to allow concentration of sphalerite to grow to economic proportions in the deposits are poorly understood.

William Hoyt, CPG, University of Northern Colorado, Greeley, CO
Other Authors: Joe Elkins, University of Northern Colorado; Julie Sexton, University of Northern Colorado; and Steven Anderson, University of Northern Colorado

Geosciences departments in the nation’s colleges and universities have been working together to develop a set of curricula and strategies to emphasize how our sciences can address the Grand Challenges facing Humanity.  The Science Education Resource Center project InTeGrate has had National Science Foundation grant support which has engaged hundreds of faculty, thousands of students, and dozens of higher education institutions across the U. S.  Goals of the project include recruiting and retaining students in geosciences, emphasizing societal relevance in geology curriculum, and challenging students and faculty to consider sustainability of the earth’s systems.

Strategies to broaden participation in geosciences are varied.  Many in the geosciences know we can do a better job, but how?  The InTeGrate implementation program at the University of Northern Colorado (UNCo) included components to recruit and retain more diverse geoscience students through visits to regional high schools and community colleges, as well as summer recruiting field trips. Moreover, to help with retaining students through to graduation, we developed and delivered a faculty workshop on advising underrepresented students who often bring cultural traditions that are unfamiliar to faculty.

We established connections with eight local high schools and community colleges, and visited with a total of 918 students. Faculty participating in this outreach effort highlighted their own applied scientific research, and student employment prospects in environmental science, geology, and meteorology. Of those 918 students, 60 indicated interest in UNCo. We also ran four field trips in Colorado during the summer of 2016. The trips attracted 54 participants in total, including high school students, community college students, university STEM majors from fields other than environmental science or geoscience, K-12 teachers, professionals from our Dean's office, and students from underrepresented groups. Though enrollment factors are complex, we are excited to report that in fall 2016, we doubled the number of students admitted to Earth Science majors from 30 incoming students in 2014 to 60.

Building a Diversity Awareness workshop allowed STEM faculty and administrators opportunities to discuss factors that promote retention of underrepresented minorities and women in science, and best practices in student advising.  Many cited the use of recruiting/retention information as very helpful, and also commented favorably regarding the opportunities for discussion among colleagues.  Faculty identified how they would apply this workshop to their teaching and advising of all students.

In addition to designing a new introductory environmental earth sciences lab class (ESCI 200), we engaged the faculty in the University’s scientific writing courses (SCI 291).  Students in some sections of SCI 291 chose a topic concerning future sustainability in their intended career path.  In addition to engaging the students more in their scientific writing class, students honed their presentation and analytical skills with a public poster presentation.  InTeGrate upper division activities for junior and senior specialty courses were developed in Ore Geology, Paleoclimatology, Geological and Biological Oceanography, and Geomorphology.  Topics included societal value of the elements, deforestation and anthropogenic influences on climate, carbon through time, and human impact on geomorphic evolution of the Southwest U. S.

James A. Jacobs, CPG, Principal Hydrogeologist, Clearwater Group, Pt. Richmond, CA
The oxidation of pyrite-rich rocks contributes to the formation of sulfuric acid drainage and the release of soluble metals such as arsenic, chromium, copper, iron, nickel, zinc and lead.  Three case studies from different geographic areas and environmental settings illustrate similar biogeochemical conditions which release acidic drainage containing soluble metals.  The first case study illustrates natural acid drainage caused by glacial ice retreat over pyrite-rich rocks, releasing acidic drainage in lake water in the tropical high-mountain Pastoruri Glacier in the Peruvian Andes. Elevated concentrations of SO4, Fe, Al, C, Mg, Mn and Zn were identified as well as acidophyllic microbial communities. A second case study features anthropogenic acid drainage at the infamous Iron Mountain Mine Superfund site in northern California where negative pH waters were documented by the U.S.G.S.  The third case study features similar biogeochemical changes in a south Florida aquifer related to an innovative water recycling project. The reinjection of oxygen-rich treated wastewater initiated pyrite oxidation and the unintended release of soluble arsenic into the aquifer.  Site specific mitigation strategies, to address acidic drainage containing soluble metals and the biogeochemical changes occurring at these types of sites, include chemical reduction processes, passive acid drainage treatments, and surface capping and water diversion.

West Johnson, Kentucky Division of Waste Management, Frankfort, KY; Co-Author: Michael Albright, Kentucky Division of Waste Management, Ahad Chowdhury, PG, Kentucky Division of Waste Management; Edward Winner, PhD, Kentucky Division of Waste Management

Karst hydrogeology and geomorphology create unique challenges for effectively characterizing contaminant nature and extent at Kentucky Underground Storage Tank (KY UST) sites. Traditional characterization of KY UST releases in karst terrain involved the initial collection of soil samples (saturated and unsaturated) and groundwater samples from the water-table aquifer. For karst sites with contamination extending to the top of carbonate bedrock, monitoring wells were historically installed into rock without first considering the features of the underlying karst geomorphology and the complex flow dynamics of the karst hydrogeology. Wells installed in this manner can provide inadequate information regarding the following critical bedrock elements: i) Transition zone (epikarst) between unconsolidated material and competent carbonate bedrock; ii) Characteristics of the fractured competent carbonate bedrock below the epikarst; iii) Contaminant mass within the epikarst and fractured rock; and, iv)Flow dynamics and contaminant transport mechanisms of the karst bedrock. The complexity of karst environments also creates challenges for selecting and implementing appropriate remedial technologies. Remediation of contaminated soils can be achieved through removal or in-situ treatment; however, remediation of contaminant mass in epikarst, solution-enlarged bedding planes, and deeper karst conduits remains challenging. Several case studies from KY UST sites demonstrate the critical importance of implementing surface and borehole geophysical technologies for characterizing karst hydrogeology and effectively remediating contaminant mass in karst systems. The case studies describe surface geophysics technologies (e.g. two-dimensional electrical resistivity imaging, refraction microtremor, frequency domain electromagnetic conductivity, very low frequency electromagnetics, etc.) and borehole geophysical methods (e.g. caliper, gamma log, borehole resistivity, optical televiewer, acoustic televiewer, heat-pulse flowmeter, etc.) used to adequately characterize and effectively remediate karst features serving as reservoirs and preferential contaminant transport pathways at KY UST sites.

West Johnson, Kentucky Division of Waste Management, Frankfort, KY; Co-Author: Michael Albright, Kentucky Division of Waste Management

High Resolution Site Characterization (HRSC) technologies have proven useful for characterizing light non-aqueous phase liquids (LNAPL) and dissolved-phase petroleum hydrocarbon plumes in the distinctly heterogeneous soils and depositional environments at Kentucky Underground Storage Tank (KY UST) sites. HRSC tools are effective at providing a dense-array of real-time site characterization data in a relatively short period of time.  While traditional site-investigation methods (monitoring wells, soil-sampling, and groundwater sampling) remain the cornerstones of environmental site characterization, remedial design, and post-remedy evaluation, the array of data generated by HRSC allows for real-time analysis of the interaction between LNAPL, dissolved-phase hydrocarbons, heterogeneous soil lithologies, and site-specific depositional features.  The addition of HRSC “tools” to the site-investigation “toolbox” for KY UST sites has been beneficial for analyzing data-gaps, evolving conceptual site models (CSMs), and developing site-specific remedial technologies.  Additionally, for some longer-lived KY UST sites, the data generated by HRSC has improved conceptual site models and enhanced remedial designs to better target source-zones and increase contaminant mass removal.  Three (3) case-studies from KY UST sites will be reviewed to illustrate the application and benefit of HRSC tools/technologies to i) Accurately map LNAPL plumes in three-dimensions using Laser-Induced Fluorescence (LIF) and the Ultraviolet Optical Screening Tool® (UVOST®); ii) Determine real-time plume-extent for dissolved-phase petroleum hydrocarbon plumes using the Membrane Interface Probe (MIP); and, iii) Collect real-time soil-permeability profiles, determine relative grain-size profiles, and identify potential contaminant migration pathways/zones via the Electronic Conductivity (EC) and Hydraulic Profiling (HPT) tools.

Carl Keller, FLUTe, Alcalde, NM; Co-Author: Beth Parker, Univ. of Guelph, Ontario, Canada; Co-Author: Steve Chapman, Univ. of Guelph, Ontario, Canada; Co-Author: Seth Pitkin, Cascade Env., Montpelier, VT

A kind of tracer measurement uses the in-situ contaminant distribution to determine where the contaminant is going and where is the source.  In order to best use that approach, one needs very detailed information on the distribution of the dissolved phase and a map of the LNAPL or DNAPL if that is the source.  Add to that the detailed characterization of the flow zones and the head distribution and one can estimate the source location and the future propagation.  These characteristics are very useful in the remediation design.   A recent test at the Naval Air Weapons Center (NAWC) near Trenton, NJ has integrated several methods which use a flexible liner to obtain very detailed maps of the NAPL, the dissolved phase, the transmissivity distribution, and the head distribution in a borehole.  This paper describes how that is done for each of the data sets on the scale of a borehole diameter for the NAPL, dissolved phase and the transmissivity profile; and on the aquifer scale for the head distribution with resolution of the aquitards controlling the local vertical flow.    The results were confirmed with a variety of other measurements.  The outstanding economical advantage is that the four measurements were done with a single flexible liner which was then reused to seal the borehole against cross connection of contamination.  The extensive data set from the single borehole was also used to assess the utility of the new method using an activated carbon felt strip to map the dissolved phase of TCE and the daughter products.  A brief description is provided of how each of these measurements is preformed and the results for a single borehole.  Comparisons with core and multi-level water samples were very informative.  The relative cost of the measurements is described as applied in the NAWC borehole.

Belkasim Khameiss, SA, Ball State University, Muncie, IN; Co-Author: Richard Fluegeman, Ball State University; Co-Author: Jeffry Grigsby; Ball State University; Co-Author: Shawn Malone, Ball State University; Other Authors: Randall Bernot, Tykhon Zubkov, Ahmed Muftah, and Claudia C. Johnson

IODP site U 1376 was one of the several drilled by the Integrated Drilling Expedition to bring a unique opportunity to examine the core from the IIA (Limestone Unit) at Burton Guyot. Twenty-five samples were collected at 30 cm intervals from the core.  The purpose of this research is to examine and identify the coral and algae in this core and to determine the response of both coral and algae to the sea level fluctuation during the Eocene. This reef is an isolated reef in the Southwest Pacific Ocean i.e. above volcanic clastic unit and covered by another in succession.

This core has sixteen biofacies units; these units were determined by the diversity of fauna and the fabric of the grains.  The biofacies units are: Algal Coral grainstone, Foraminiferal Algal grainstone (Subbotina eocaena  bed), Foraminiferal  algal- coral  grainstone (Alabamina sp. bed), Algal Coral grainstone, Foraminiferal  algal- coral  grainstone (Catapsydrax bed),  Algal- coral  grainstone, Foraminiferal  algal- coral  grainstone (Catapsydrax unicavus bed), Algal Coral grainstone, Foraminiferal  algal grainstone (Parasubbotina varianta bed), Foraminiferal  algal grainstone (Lgena sp. bed), Foraminiferal  algal wack-packstone  (Parasubbotina eoclova bed), Foraminiferal  algal grainstone (Cibicidoides micrus bed), Foraminiferal  algal grainstone (Globigerina officinalis bed), Foraminiferal  algal- coral  grainstone (Paragloborotalia (Turborotalia) griffinoides bed), Algal –gastropods grainstone, and Foraminiferal  algal- coral  wackestone- Packstone (Turborotalia frontosa bed).

This is the first study to consider the algae, and coral in these units. The only coralline  red algae recognized in the samples is Lithothamnion camarasa. Which is a good indicator of the warm time during the Middle–Late Eocene. The only species of coral found in these units is Isopora togianensis, it is a scleractinian reef. The high percentage of the algae compared with the coral is a good indicator of a changed climate, which means a decline into an icehouse climate. The change of the trend of this fauna during this time indicates a tectonic and/or climate change pattern.

Gerry Kirkpatrick, CPG, Environmental Standards, Inc., Charlottesville, VA

The suite of emerging contaminants is expanding, and the impacts that these, and other political pollutants have on the technical aspects of remediating municipal solid waste sites is far-reaching.  Remediators and regulator reactions to the technical challenges associated with managing these chemicals in leachate and groundwater has created interesting and unprecedented challenges to hydrogeologists and landfill engineers alike.

While managing emerging contaminants at closed landfills has many of the same challenges that other waste sites present, there are several distinct differences.  The scale of the source area is enormous.  Unlike many sites, controlling source mass by treatment, removal, or volume reduction is virtually impossible.
Often, closed landfills are in a rural setting where potable water is supplied only by private wells.  In many instances, demographic pressures are such that dense residential developments encroach on what was once a far-rural setting.  These pressures can result in changes in groundwater and leachate management strategies that have long-term consequences.

Complex regulatory programs often intersect at landfill.  RCRA subtitle D obligations, perhaps CERCLA liability, and multiple stakeholder interests create a dynamic that must be managed when unexpected regulatory changes, such as emerging contaminants move from the realm of hypothetical concerns to real regulatory and public issues.
Systems designed to treat known chemicals of concern at the time of their construction can be rendered obsolete overnight.  Leachate treatment system needs will change, groundwater containment or point of use technologies will change, and permit limits will be drastically modified. 

Communities and private parries that fund municipal landfill must plan for the eventual regulations that will surround these news chemicals, and authorities will serve their taxpayers well by monitoring what chemicals are of concern, and adjust their financial plans as appropriate.  Even risk management considerations will change as insurance industry begins to adjust policies in reaction to what may or may not be verified as “unknown conditions.”

This paper will discuss the confounding factors that emerging contaminants play in managing and remediating landfills.  Both long-term and short-term impacts that emerging contaminants have on landfills, and their stakeholders will be examined using several examples from the eastern United States.  Data on a nationwide scale will also be supplied, and the impacts of emerging contaminants on the waste industry nationally will also be reviewed. 

Roger Lamb, MEM, Roger Lamb Consulting, Nashville, TN; Co-Author: Steve Cole, Principia, Mathematica, Denver, CO; Sam Beckum, EMC, Inc., Montgomery, AL

Contaminant mass flux analysis is recognized as a useful tool for determining groundwater remediation feasibility and groundwater remediation design.  This presentation provides a case study of the development of high resolution mass flux estimates to aid in remediation of a leaded gasoline release.  The project was initiated by the Alabama Department of Environmental Management (ADEM), UST Corrective Action Unit to define the human health risk and remediation options presented by the gasoline impacted groundwater.  To achieve these goals, we performed a contaminant mass flux analysis from a high resolution data set.  In turn, this analysis will allow us to design remediation that guarantees outcomes that will not exceed ADEM petroleum insurance fund cost caps.

The mass flux analysis was developed from 11,556 MiHPT measurements, 7,355 MIP measurements, 2,354 groundwater sample analysis results, and 393 groundwater hydraulic head measurements.  These data were then modeled using PM-DIAMOND to develop a high resolution mass flux estimate.  Using the mass flux estimate, spatial analysis of the MIP data set enabled development of a high resolution mass discharge estimate for total gasoline volatile organic compounds.  The resulting analysis is currently being used to develop remediation strategies to prevent offsite migration of benzene and ethylene dibromide impacted groundwater within a complex saprolite geologic setting.

J. Todd McFarland, PG, CPG, Amec Foster Wheeler, Nashville, TN

A multi-disciplinary global consulting firm can provide an entry-level geologist opportunities to work on a variety of projects in a variety of settings. The projects can be with a diverse group of clients including commercial, industrial, transportation, and government entities. Amec Foster Wheeler currently employs over 40,000 people in over 50 countries. Market sectors include the oil and gas, clean energy, environment and infrastructure, and mining. A geologist working for a large consulting firm has the opportunity to work on multi-disciplinary projects in diverse geographic locations. There are also numerous opportunities for professional growth and advancement.

Brittiny Paige Moore, SA, KY
Warren County, Kentucky is located atop bedrock consisting of Mississippian age limestones eroded by dissolution which formed sinking streams, caverns, sinkholes and springs. Though sinkholes are common throughout the state, southcentral Kentucky has the highest density. The most common type of sinkhole in Kentucky is the cover (or sediment) collapse which occurs in the soil or other loose material that overlies soluble bedrock. A second type of sinkhole is called a bedrock collapse, which occurs when the ceiling of a cave collapses, exposing the cave passage. This type of collapse is considered rare. The purpose of this study is to determine the increased risk of bedrock collapse sinkholes as a geohazard as a result of human activities in Bowling Green, Kentucky. Methods include the use of remote-sensing, GIS, cave data and maps to interpret areas in Bowling Green that pose the greatest risk of bedrock collapse and, thus, damage and loss of infrastructure. There are over 350 cave entrances in Warren County and more than 30 km of cave passages and among those bedrock collapse sinkholes are relatively rare. However, preliminary results indicate that bedrock collapse sinkholes can be induced by human activities.

Barbara Murphy, CPG, Clear Creek Associates, Scottsdale, AZ; Ruth Allington, GWP Consultants, Oxfordshire, United Kingdom; Oliver Bonham, Geoscientists Canada, BC, Canada

The successful 4th International Professional Geology Conference (4IPGC) held in Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada in January 2012 was a collaborative effort by representatives from several national professional geology organizations. The conference featured speakers from many countries addressing various topics under the theme of Earth Science – Global Practice. It illustrated that geoscientists worldwide face many of the same concerns and issues regarding professional and educational standards and ethics. Professional geology organizations are increasingly being relied on by governments and society to assist with determining standards and to communicate the importance of geoscience professionalism including codes of conduct and ethics. Globally consistent professional geologist standards are of rising importance as society increases its demands on Earth resources (water, minerals, extractable energy sources, rocks, and soil) while also developing common understandings on the use and management of Earth resources for a sustainable future. Professional standards are also key for geologists when conveying to the public their understandings on environmental conditions and geohazards.

Following the 4IPGC, members of the planning committee worked together with the International Union of Geological Sciences (IUGS) to form the Task Group on Global Geosciences Professionalism (TG-GGP). The TG-GGP was officially formed at the IUGS 34th International Geological Congress (IGC) in Brisbane, Australia, in August 2012. The TG-GGP was also very involved in the IUGS 35th IGC in Capetown, South Africa in August 2016, working collaboratively with the International Association for the Promotion of Geoethics (IAPG) with oral presentations and panel discussions under the Global Professionalism and Geoethics theme.

The purpose of the TG-GGP is to ensure that geoscientists are fully engaged in the transformation of their global profession by providing information that will result in a greater worldwide understanding of geoscience professionalism by all geoscience stakeholders. The TG-GGP website (www.tg-ggp.org) provides information for both society and the global geoscience community; it also serves as a forum for collaboration on professional matters (including geoethics and anti-harassment initiatives) in geoscience at the local, national, and international level. The overall aim is greater protection to the public and the environment through increased communication and understanding of professionalism in the geosciences. Expanding the membership in the TG-GGP and the addition of further collaborating organizations continues as awareness rises through presentations about the Task Group at meetings and conferences.
This presentation will provide general information about TG-GGP, and will summarize recent updates and planned activities.

Caryl Orr, CPG, Earth Resource Systems LLC, Tuscaloosa, AL
Students pursuing academic careers, oil and gas careers, and federal careers may not require a license to practice.  It may be in a student’s interest to be aware of requirements to pursue a professional license in the case they change industries.  A license normally translates into more upward mobility salary-wise and for progressive responsibility over projects.

Many states require geologist to register and to practice only after obtaining licensure. Licensure is regulated through a state board.  Licensure refers to the demonstration of ability or knowledge required by law before being allowed to perform a task or job. Licensure and certification (normally from a professional society) also demonstrate your competence, qualification and expertise as a geologist.

As a profession, it is important for geologists to be recognized for their important contributions and training to understand the earth’s origins, formations, and natural processes. In the future, it will become increasing critical for geologists to be part of multi-disciplinary teams in solving complex energy and environmental problems. The profession needs young people to fill these needs as baby boomers are retiring.

Some of the advantages of starting preparation at the undergraduate level are that the fundamentals of geology studied in the sophomore and junior years will be covered in Part 1 of an ASBOG exam. It is easier to prepare and pass these exams during a geology student’s senior year if possible or soon thereafter. It will help their marketability and their self-directed career options in the future. It will show their commitment and understanding to their professional, ethical and societal responsibilities as a geologist. Feedback from these exams will also assist the respective geology departments in tweaking their curriculum.  Other professions have a ranking system wherein students will choose those programs that best assist them in their future careers and marketability.

Part II of the ASBOG should be taken approximately 3-4 years after practical experience working under the direction of other geologists or engineers. Each student should have a roadmap of when the optimal times are to take the exam and to know how to gain practical experience.

Course offerings and student chapters of professional organizations that support this mission should be promoted by universities offering geology degrees. It will help make these students be more competitive and competent to answer the needs and demands of companies and organizations who would hire their graduates. Alumni are also a source of talent who could help mentor or provide input on requirements or areas of improvement for graduating seniors. 

Mehmet Pehlivan, MEM, Bays Environmental Remediation Management, Ladera Ranch, CA

This paper presents a comparative evaluation of two pilot tests performed using in-well stripping and recirculation method for treatment of petroleum hydrocarbon contaminated groundwater. The method of in-well stripping and recirculation removes or degrades in place volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from soil and groundwater. Two tests were performed on different setting and other end of continental United States. The first test was performed in New York and the second was performed in California. Tests were also different in terms of recirculation. First test involved recirculating between one extraction and one injection well and the second test involved recirculation in same well using two different screen intervals (shallow and deep screen). The flow rate of recirculated groundwater was quite different in both tests. However, the results were similar in terms of removing VOCs from groundwater, and increasing DO in recirculated water. The radius of influence was quite different between both tests as well.
The paper will present conceptual model of in-well stripping and recirculation method, setting, and monitoring of two different tests, comparative evaluation of two tests, lessons learned, further improvement potential as well as full scale implementation potential will be discussed.

Harvey Pokorny, CPG, NAVFAC Mid-Atlantic, Hoffman Estates, IL

Sheridan Beach is a strip of land along the Indiana Lake Michigan shoreline between Michigan City and Long Beach, Indiana.  The emphasis of this presentation is Pleistocene/Holocene regional geologic history, depositional beach processes, and how they relate to historic pier/harbor construction.  Sheridan Beach lies towards the lake form a series of sand dunes deposited during Toleston Beach formation, occurring between 6,500 and 2,500 years ago.  Many of the dunes in this sequence were mined in the 20th century for their predominantly quartz sand.

Through a series of La Porte county plat maps, artist renditions and photographs, the geographic and developmental history of this region will be illustrated and explained.  Constructing a history during this time period includes comparing differing sources to arrive at a compilation of data that is defensible.  This study documents the shoreline beach addition of “made land” of over two miles long by up to ¼ mile wide over the last 150 years.  Modern day Lake Michigan analogues to Sheridan Beach are also presented.  Economic and recreational ramifications will be discussed.

John Prochnau, CPG, J. Prochnau & Co., Clinton, WA; Co-Author: Dr. Zeinhom El-Alfy, Cairo, Egypt; Co-Author: Dr. Khalifa Oweiss, Cairo, Egypt

Gold in the Eastern Desert of Egypt, the region between the Nile River and Red Sea, was first mined by pre-Dynastic civilizations about 4000 B.C.  Unification of Upper and Lower Egypt into a single Kingdom by Menes I in 3100 B.C. created the centralized political environment for increased development of Eastern Desert gold, largely from quartz veins in late Precambrian terrain and dry desert alluvials, during the ensuing 3000 year period of regional domination by successive Pharaonic Dynasties.  Desert trade routes linking the urban centers of Upper Egypt with gold mining sites in the Eastern Desert and Red Sea ports were developed and historic documents record over 100 mining sites and production of up to 55 million ounces gold during the Pharaonic Era.

During the post-Pharaonic Ptolemaic, Roman and Byzantine Eras, beginning with Alexander’s conquest of Egypt in 332 B.C. and continuing through the Islamic occupation in 641 A.D. exploitation of the Eastern Desert gold deposits continued on a reduced scale due to competitive production elsewhere within the developing world.  Gold production further declined during the Islamic and following Ottoman Eras although historic remains of stone huts, grinding implements and prayer circles near alluvial diggings adjacent many of the ancient gold mines indicate continuing activities on a lesser scale.

British colonial presence in the late 19th and early 20th centuries led to re-evaluation of several ancient mines but little production.  The Egyptian Geological Survey, organized in 1895 with British assistance, undertook programs to map the geology and inventory mineral resources of the country.  However, mining activity was limited to the public sector with little consequent investment until the industry was opened to private investment by Presidential Decree in 1986.  The era of modern gold exploration and development in the Eastern Desert has slowly evolved since that time with Centamin Egypt leading the sector through development of the Sukari gold mine, first in modern Egyptian history, commencing production in 2009.  At time of the January 2011 Revolution a number of Egyptian and international companies held gold concessions in the Eastern Desert and were undertaking exploration activity.

Matz Holdings Limited has been active in the ancient Hammash, Dunqash and Samut gold mine areas where systematic exploration programs led to re-evaluation of these historic deposits and new discovery of the Abu Muraywah veinfield where some 60 gold-bearing quartz veins, unrecognized by earlier prospectors due to fine grain size, have been identified within an elliptical, 2km x 1km gabbro intrusive body.  Early evaluation of the Abu Muraywah veinfield demonstrates consistently high gold values up to multi-ounces in smoky, banded quartz veins up to 1.5m thick and 0.5km long.  Commercial significance for Abu Muraywah continues to be evaluated through ongoing exploration.

Modern gold discovery in Egypt’s Eastern Desert requires conventional exploration technique guided by the archeological record of six millennia of ancient prospectors. 

Ahmed Rashed, Gemsa Petroleum Company (GEMPETCO), Cairo, Egypt

Looking at a formation as a source rock, then turning around and considering it a viable reservoir requires you to be able to shift your thinking and to analyze a great deal of data in a new way. If you don’t, you risk not understanding the nature of “sweet spots” and how to accurately complete or use reservoir characterization studies.

In some parts of the Near-East, formations such as the Brown Limestone in the Gulf of Suez or the Upper Cretaceous (Campanian) in EGYPT, are known to be the source rock for nearby reservoirs. In some instances however, these formations are found to be highly productive reservoirs themselves.
Method and/or Theory
In a well drilled in Gemsa field, log response as well as mud log description over the Thebes and Brown Limestone formations were indicative of a slightly shaly limestone reservoir with cherty beds. Gas shows were abundant, direct fluorescence and oil were seen on cuttings. Log interpretation indicated porosity as well as movable hydrocarbons. The well was tested and produced oil at a fair rate.
Petrophysical well log and formation micro-imager data (FMI) were integrated in an analysis of the reservoir characteristics. The study essentially determined reservoir properties such as lithology, shale volume, porosity (Φ), permeability (K), fluid saturation, and net pay thickness. Shale volume (Vsh) was calculated by CGR instead of total GR due to influence of organic matter and uranium concentration. Log interpretation indicated porosity in the 8-20 PU range by using neutron & density model, as well as movable hydrocarbons. The well was tested and produced oil at a fair rate. The methodology of Passey et al (1990) was used for Delta Log R calculation of TOC and involved overlay and base-lining of the resistivity and sonic logs and consideration of thermal maturity patterns.

ΔlogR technique is proposed by EXXON and ESSO company (Passey,1990) which employs the overlaying of porosity logs (sonic, density, neutron) in arithmetic coordinate and resistivity log in logarithmic coordinate with fixed superposition coefficient to identify and calculate TOC. With the appropriate baseline, we can calculate the ΔlogR distribution to establish the quantitative interpretation relationship between TOC and ΔlogR.

Best calibration was made using the available data such as Image logs and ΔlogR technique through wire line logs. Old wells were drilled on the same structure and exhibited the same characteristics (shows, logs). Unconventional Petrophysical concept was generated including hot gamma ray (The better the quality of reservoir), porosity is not the issue, but we are searching for kerogen porosity, so Total organic carbon and porosity are two of the biggest keys.

These source rocks are found to be highly productive reservoirs themselves, exhibit very good porosity and fracture network. They give low and high productivity in some intervals according to production logging tool (PLT). High geothermal gradient caused maturation of these formations. Uranium content masked the total GR response, so Spectral GR logs (SGR) should be highly recommended in unconventional resources to evaluate the clay content. ΔlogR technique reflects mature source rocks with excellent quality, TOC is in the range of 2-9%, and matching with production. 

William Siok, CPG, Consultant, Tucson, AZ

The Yucca Mountain nuclear waste repository project was officially suspended by the DOE in 2010. Approximately $15 billion was expended to explore and develop the proposed site prior to the cessation of investigations. The Nuclear Energy Institute reports that 99 nuclear power plants are presently operating in the USA. The radioactive by-products (spent fuel) from these facilities continue to be stored on-site at the reactor locations, posing long-term risks to public safety and environment.

Is the time right to revisit the concept of nuclear waste disposal at Yucca Mountain?  A review of the geology of Yucca Mountain shows favorable conditions for long-term disposal of high level nuclear waste. A photographic and select document tour of the mountain serves as a reminder of the potential viability of Yucca Mountain as a safe long-term option for nuclear waste disposal.

Steven Stokowski, CPG, TEC Services, Inc., Lawrenceville, GA

Petrographic analyses allow the identification, cleaning and repair of masonry building materials comprising iconic and historic structures.  These may be churches, mansions, monuments, fountains, schools/colleges, and bridges, often designed by renowned architects.

Many historic structures are constructed of natural stone, brick, terracotta, cast stone, concrete blocks, or placed concrete.  Microscopic examination of these materials allows the composition to be precisely identified so that it can be matched or replicated for repairs or additions.  If the material deteriorated, the cause of the deterioration can be identified so that similar future deterioration might be prevented.
Many conventional masonry structures also contain mortar between individual units.  This mortar is usually the least durable of the materials and will sacrificially deteriorate first, requiring repointing.  Restoration professionals often require that replacement mortars match the original mortar in composition so that the appearance and durability intended by the original designer is duplicated. 
The composition of the new mortar must not cause harm to the enclosing stone, brick, etc.  But, there may be a practical requirement to develop a mortar to correct original construction defects or problems identified through petrographic analysis such as salt or sulfate attack.
Sometimes there will also be forensic evidence of past construction practices embedded in the mortar, such as cotton fibers from cement bags, molds of ice crystals, etc.

Examples of the application of petrographic analysis to restoration include: 1) Concrete at the Marine Corps Memorial (Iwo Jima Memorial) required repair for the 50th anniversary.  The “black granite” used for the exposed aggregate was identified by others as being from Sweden, whereas petrographic analysis correctly identified it as diabase from Northern Virginia, along with black sand manufactured from coal-plant bottom ash, 2) The Oakes Ames Memorial Hall in Easton, MA is composed of durable granite and generally durable sandstone, but some of the carved sandstone deteriorated because of traces of pyrite that releases sulfate to form soluble salts that cause deterioration, and must be removed by poulticing,  3) The John Jacob Riis building at the Gateway National Recreation Area was constructed of several types of brick; some made with a pyritic clay caused problems with the durability of the brick and mortar in the structure from the time of construction, 4) Art Deco bridges along the Merritt Parkway in CT were constructed of reinforced concrete which weathered to innocuously expose the diabase and basalt coarse aggregate, but often require repair because of exposure of the reinforcing steel.  This exposed aggregate was not by design, but still presented a pleasing, familiar sight to commuters and travelers.  To repair these bridges required conventional repairs, along with petrographic analyses using special large point-counting stage to reverse engineer the composition of the concrete so that the proportions could be replicated, and, 5) Exposed siliceous pea gravel concrete at Peachtree Center, Atlanta has a unique appearance and composition, but is not currently available in GA.  Petrographic analysis followed by internet research resulted in identifying a similar natural gravel in a nearby state. 

Terrance Zich, CPG, Envista Forensics, DeLand, FL
Problematic soil medium include soils that cause additional problems from the geological and geotechnical engineering perspective in relations to its effects on the stability of structures. The definition of soil mechanics is the study of the physical properties of soil, especially those properties that affect the behavior of soils on their ability to bear weight, including such things as mineralogy, water content, density, strength, depositional environments, etc. Well-defined forensic problematic soils studies include teams of geologists and engineers.
Awareness of problematic soils during the design process should result in an engineering design that conditions the site prior to the development of the structure. However, when structures are constructed on problematic soils and/or constructed with problematic soils without proper advanced design and treatment, a team of forensic geologists and engineers are required to adequately evaluate the forensic cause of distress that may develop in the structure. There are many reasons other than problematic soils that can cause distress to structures and these other features must be included in the final forensic evaluation of the cause of the distress and how they relate to any underlying problematic soils.
A partial list of the most common types of problematic soils that cause distress in structures include: Soil conditions caused by Sinkholes (LS, Salts, Man-made); Shrink-Swell Clays; Collapsible soils; Peat/Organics; Very loose sands/Very soft clays; Buried debris within soils; and other Miscellaneous soils.
The Doctrine of Uniformitarianism by James Hutton has been paraphrased as The Present is the key to the Past. This is an important key in understanding the areas where different type of some problematic soils may be encountered, relating the uniqueness of Geology to Geography for problematic soils development.
Geologic Maps are one of the key readily available sources of research information that provide geographic information related to the distribution of potential problematic soils areas. Many states provide state specific maps with geologic/geographic distribution of problematic soils information that has been, or can be used, to assist in better targeting specific types of forensic problematic soils. The United States Department of Agriculture’s Natural Resource Conservation Service provides some general shallow soils information, however, no site-specific soils testing is included. These tools can be useful as research information in an evaluation but cannot be relied upon to confirm or deny the presence of site-specific problematic soils. Therefore, field sampling and/or laboratory testing can be used to verify that the structure distress are related to problematic soils.
If problematic soils are indicated as the source of distress to the structures, remediation and stabilization methods are available. The methods of remediation used to stabilize a structure vary greatly depending on factures such as the types and depth of the problematic soils and other factors causing the distress, the type and size of the structure, the building materials used to construct the structure, types of foundations and other design and logistical parameters.

Ronald P. Zurawski, CPG, State Geologist and Director, Tennessee Geological Survey

Tennessee’s geologic history encompasses a span of time of more than one billion years. Because of its length of more than 440 miles from west to east, Tennessee includes a number of geologic settings that lend themselves to a discussion in terms of what are called physiographic provinces. These are broad areas whose pattern of landforms differs significantly from other adjacent regions. Parts of a province are closely related in geomorphic history, geologic structure, and other aspects of the physical environment, such as climate. Each of Tennessee’s eight physiographic provinces will be discussed in terms of how their geology and natural resources have had an impact on Tennessee’s historical development, continue to support its current prosperity, and help to prepare us for future challenges and opportunities.


Poster Presentations

Mark Abolins, MEM, Middle Tennessee State University, Murfreesboro, TN

Within a 3,200 km2 area in central Tennessee, 138 dye traces define groundwater flow paths in carbonates of the Ordovician Stones River Group.  The length of these traces totals more than 257 km.  These traces are within the Nashville dome, and a published crustal density model shows that most of these traces are also above a north-northeast trending belt of higher density crust interpreted here as a Precambrian or Cambrian rift.  The largest set of traces (20.2%, length-weighted) shares the orientation of a regional joint set striking 310-330oand oriented at roughly a right angle to the trend of the closest Appalachian thrust faults. However, the longest trace has a bearing of 005o and a length of 9.1 km, exceeding the mean trace length of 1.8 km by 5.3 standard deviations. Because this trace is above the western margin of the rift and this trace is sub-parallel to the trend of the rift, this trace is interpreted as indicating groundwater flow through karst features formed by dissolution along fractures which developed during post-Ordovician reactivation of rift faults.
In an area 6.1 km to the northeast of the 9.1 km trace, 7 traces oriented 342-001o (length-weighted mean of 346o) have a total length of approx. 9.0 km.  These traces are above the western margin of a north-trending rift segment.  In addition, the dye trace injection points, detection points, or, most commonly, both are within the western limb of the Stones River syncline, a fold which likely formed during upward propagation of an east-side-down blind normal fault (the Stones River fault) according to a published interpretation.  At one location above the hypothetical fault, a joint set having a mean strike and dip of 344/76oE provides direct evidence that the orientation of the dye traces is the same as that of the fractures through which the groundwater flows.

Considering the dataset as a whole, the second largest set of dye traces trends 340-349o.  These traces account for approx. 13.7% of the traces (length-weighted) whereas only 5.6% of traces would be expected to have orientations falling into this range if trace orientations were uniformly distributed.  The relative abundance of traces having orientations within this range suggests that fractures formed during post-Ordovician reactivation of rift faults may play a larger role in groundwater flow within the Nashville dome than has been recognized previously.

Nathainail Bashir, SA, Missouri University of Science and Technology, Rolla, MO 65401; Co-Author: Dr.Neil Anderson, Missouri University of Science and Technology

The objective of this study was to investigate the current state of the practice with regards to MASW application in karst investigation and recommend the optimum parameter setting and pattern of arrays to acquire the desired results. The karst environment is one of the most challenging in terms of finding depth to intact rock. In karst environments the selection of the best-suited geophysical method is not always straightforward, due to the highly variable and unpredictable target characteristics. The multichannel analysis of surface waves (MASW) and Electrical resistivity (ERT) two geophysical technique were employed. The MASW data was acquired at each test location using different array lengths and different array orientations (to increase the probability of getting interpretable data in karst terrain). On the basis of the comparative analyses of MASW and ERT data, it determined that 2.5-ft geophone spacing with 10ft and 30ft offset gave generated depth of bedrock accurately. With 5-ft geophone spacing it is possible to image the subsurface to greater depth but unidentifiable dispersion curves would be generated.

Muhammad Hayat, SA, Missouri University of Science and Technology, Rolla, MO; Co-Author: Lana Zalagha, Missouri University of Science and Technology

In sulfide mineral flotation, depressants such as sodium cyanide (NaCN) are used for enhancing separation through flotation. As these substances are toxic and hazardous, these are constant threat to ground water resources. This study is carried out to test biocompatible polymers as replacement of NaCN to save fresh water resources and environment. Synthetic bio-compatible polymer chitosan was tested as potential selective depressant replacing NaCN in the bulk flotation of galena and chalcopyrite. Sodium isopropyl xanthate was used as a collector and 4-Methyl-2-pentanol (MIBC) as frother. The sulfide ore particles were ground to a size of - 75 microns with the help of a batch rod mill. Flotation tests were carried out in lab scale Denver mechanical flotation cell. Two set of experiments were carried out using variable dosages of polymer and NaCN respectively. Effects of depressant (NaCN) and polymer (Chitosan) dosages were quantified in terms of froth stability, grade and recovery of the products. Analysis of the data was carried out to judge the feasibility of replacing the toxic depressant by polymers in natural complex Sulphide ore.

Olufeyisayo Ilesanmi, SA, Missouri University of Science and Technology, Rolla, MO; Co-Author: Francisca Oboh-Ikuenobe, Missouri University of Science and Technology; Co-Author: Abdelsalam Mohamed, Oklahoma State University

Lidar and satellite imagery are essential tools for mapping geologic hazards in the modern-day study of the surface geology. Lidar provides the detailed surface representation of geologic structure where multispectral satellite remote sensing data can provide detailed characterization of the surface features. This investigation seeks to combine the two remote sensing techniques to explore and assess the sensitivity of these respective datasets to earth surface changes potentially detectable at centimeter scale geology to reduce the risk of geologic failures, prevent loss of lives and property. The research Approach will test hazard mapping scenarios for central Oklahoma where recent earthquake activity was reported by the U.S. Geological Survey. Using post-earthquake analysis using Lidar and C-band -Synthetic Aperture Radar (C-SAR) data in Pawnee, Oklahoma, USA, to explore how seismic energy reflected in the surface geology has been triggered, and the impacted momentum be monitored after an earthquake shake. Furthermore, this method seeks to determine how surficial changes correlate to seismicity and gradual surface movements around geologic faults monitored over a 10-year period. Analyses will be used to estimate the cumulative and potential impacts of seismicity which can lead to further geomorphological deformation.

Belkasim Khameiss, SA, Ball State University, Muncie, IN; Rodeny Manny, Ball State University, Eric Lange, Ball State University

350 samples were collected and sorted at the University of Rome by the Italian Royal Government in Libya, and Benghazi University. These specimens are mostly invertebrate fauna, with rare vertebrate fauna. Most of the invertebrate fauna are Mollusks (Gastropods, Bivalves, and Cephlopods), Echinoderms, and Cindiraians.

The species of Gastropods from the western part of Libya is: Libceithium saccoi.Eastern Libyan Gastropods are: Aporrhais dutrugei, Aptxxiella subaequalis, Checchiaia sanfilippou, Colombellina (Colombellina) cf fusiformis, petrocera incerta, pterodonta deffisis, pyrazus(pyrazus) valeriae, Turritella quadricincta,Tylostoma globosum, Volutimorpha baylei.
The species of Bivalve from the western part are: Sayvagesia chechiai, sauvagesia sanfilippo, and the eastren part are: Modiolus modiolus, Barbaia (Barbaia) aegyptiaca, Cullullaea( Idonearca) diceras, pycnodonte(phygraea) vesicularis vesiculos, Costagyra olisiponensis, Ceratostreon flabellatum, plicatula auressensis, Neithea (Neithea) dutrugei , Artica picteti,Granocardium productum, Tenea delettrei, and Turritella quadricincta.

Cephalopds from the west are: Indoceras checchiai, Indoceras ismaeli libycum, Kossmaticeras gortani, Parapachydiscus sanfilippoi, Parapachydiscus sanfilippo, Nautilus sanfilippoi, Botriopygus lamberti. And Peseudaspidocera peseudaspidoosoids from the east.

Echinoderms from western Libya are: Botriopygus lamberti, Botriopygus millosevichi, Botriopygus vinassai, Conulus parravanoi, Conulus sanfilippoi, Clypeaster lovisato, Gitolampas lamberti, Globator dainellii, Hemiaster paronai, Leiocidaris sanfilippoi, Leiocidaris tripolitana, Lovenia loveni, Noetlingaster lambert, Noetlingaster millosevich, Noetlingaster sanfilippo, Orthopsis sanfilippoi, Phymosoma mortenseni, Phymosoma parona, Pyrina mortenseni, Procassidulus clericii, Salenia lamberti, Spatagoides aichino, Spatagoides martellii, Spatagoides tripolitanus, Zuffardia cerullii. From the eastern are: Mecaster batensis, Hemiaster (Mecaster) heberti, Corals from western Libya are: Diploctenium zuffardii, Rispolites laevigatu. No coral have been reported in the eastern part of Libya during the Cretaceous.

Most of the western samples were collected from the Ain Tobi Formation which is Upper Cretaceous, and the Eastern fauna are from the Qaser AlAbid, ALBanyiah, and Wad Dukhan Formations.
The coral itself did not build most of the Libyan reef in the Cretaceous; the majority was built by the rudist clams, Sauvagesia checchiai, especially in northeast Libya at the Upper Cretaceous Wadi Dukhan Formation. On the other hand, most of the invertebrate fauna from the western are from the Ain Tobi Formation. The abundance of these fauna during this time is an excellent indicator of a shallow water facies of North Africa and Southern Europe during the Upper Cretaceous. 

Jonathan Stanfield, SA, Undergraduate Division of Geology at The University of Tennessee: Chattanooga, TN

Since the mapping of the Great Smoky National Park of the Blue Ridge (BR), the Precambrian age of the Ocoee Supergroup (OS) and its metamorphic history have become controversial. Fossils found within the last 30 years suggests that the OS in the western part of the BR is Silurian or younger. It has been proposed that the entire OS could be of similar age. Subsequent mapping separated the fossil-bearing western BR part from the rest of the BR, which includes the Wilhite Formation, by faults. Of these, the most notable is the Miller Cove Thrust (MCT) Fault, with well foliated and metamorphosed rocks in the MCT thrust sheet (hanging wall), and less metamorphosed rocks in the footwall. The present research is intended to characterize the shales and slates on either side of the Miller Cove Thrust in terms of illite clay crystallinity using X-ray Diffraction. Proper characterization of these units will refine current understanding of the petrology and geologic history of this region. So far measured crystallinities have been consistent with previous work, however interpretations have concluded that the MCT may predate regional metamorphism or need refining of placement.

Baylee Stark, SA, Wright State University, Dayton, OH; Co-Author: Stacey Hundley, Ph.D., Wright State University
In 2015 Wright State University opened the doors to the new innovative Student Success Center with classrooms and resources available to students supporting active learning pedagogies. While many studies have been conducted with physics students, active learning design has seen positive results in multiple disciplines (Beichner, 2008; Foote et al., 2014; Gaffney et al., 2008; McConnell and Ryker, 2013); however, there has been a deficit in active learning research in the Earth Sciences. For many years the Earth & Environmental Sciences Department has offered a physical geology course, The Dynamic Earth, to non-science undergraduate students. This course fulfills a natural science requirement within the Wright Core. In the fall of 2015 a section of The Dynamic-Earth was taught for the first time using a Student-Centered Active Learning Environment with Upside-down Pedagogies or SCALE-UP format. Due to the success of this pilot course, a section of The Dynamic Earth was again taught using the SCALE-UP format classroom during the fall of 2016. A second section of this course was also conducted using a traditional instructor-led lecture method. Student learning was assessed in both sections based on the administration of the Geoscience Concept Inventory (GCI). Student learning gains were determined through pre- and post-test analysis. Upon completion of the course, students also expressed their opinions through the Student Assessment of Learning Gains (SALG). A comparison of learning gains between the two teaching methods was then conducted. Furthermore, correlations between specific demographic groups and successes in the two classroom styles were analyzed.

John Waida, SA, Metropolitan State University of Denver, Denver, CO; Co-Author: Uwe Richard Kackstaetter, Ph.D., Metropolitan State University of Denver

Placer diamond prospecting methods usually focus on the specific gravity of kimberlite indicator minerals (KIM’s) or actual diamonds. Although tried and true, these techniques are often tedious and time consuming. Visual reconnaissance surveys are non-existent. The idea of using long wave or short wave UV excitation as an alternate prospecting tool are usually disbanded because of the absence of fluorescent responses to KIM’s and most naturally occurring diamonds. However, using UV wavelengths outside the commonly accepted 365 nm (Long Wave) and 254 nm (Short Wave) bands by employing commercially available UV LED lamps, fluorescent excitation of detrital diamonds is indeed possible and visible, showing promising results. Dark room testing of rough, un-cut 1 - 2 mm sized diamonds using an OceanView Optics Red Tide 650 usb spectrometer and associated Sparkvue software, a < 400 nm UV blocking filter, and UV LEDs with 365 nm, 388 nm, and 395 nm emissions showed visible light fluorescence in 95% of the diamond samples tested. Light excitement levels varied based on natural color of diamonds and wavelength of UV light. Best results were obtained with the 365 nm and 388 nm UV LEDs, thus showing promise for the feasibility of a visual diamond prospecting method. Based on results from 25 detrital diamonds investigated, all but 2 emitted visible light photons under intense UV radiation at the respective wavelengths. The experimental set-up verified that strong blue intensity peaks are indicative of visible fluorescence masking through the UV source light. However, adding an optical UV/blue wavelength filter will eliminate this “blue-out” effect, thus increasing the potential of an economical and visual prospecting method for placer diamonds. Further study will focus on the fluorescent response of KIM’s using the same approach.